Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 31, 1915 - Thomas Merton

Image from www.merton.ca

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia -
Thomas Merton, Trappist monk and writer, was born in Prades, France, on January 31, 1915. He was the son of Owen Heathcoate Grierson Merton, a painter born in New Zealand, and Ruth Calvert (Jenkins) Merton, an artist-designer born in the United States. After his mother's death when he was six, Merton spent his childhood in several places, sometimes in the company of his father, sometimes with his maternal grandparents on Long Island, and sometimes with friends of his father. The younger Merton was exposed early to a literary and artistic milieu best described as bohemian. He received his elementary education in the United States, Bermuda, France, and England, where he graduated from Oakham School in 1933. He attended Clare College, Cambridge University (1933-34), then returned to the United States. He attended Columbia University, receiving a B.A. in 1937 and an M.A. in English in 1938.
By that time, with both his grandparents dead, his "journey" (as he often described his life) led him from conventionality to the margins of society. Merton dabbled with communism and the peace movement and apparently followed a bohemian lifestyle, perhaps because his childhood had left him comfortable only with a way of life perceived as marginal (and questionable) by the rest of society. In the late 1930s, he and his friends stood in the vanguard of what was later dubbed the Beat movement. Merton converted to Roman Catholicism in 1938 and attempted to join the Franciscan order but was rejected. In 1939- 40, he taught English at Saint Bonaventure University in Olean, New York. On December 10, 1941, he joined the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (Trappists) , and entered the Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani, south of Bardstown, Kentucky. The order followed a basically medieval lifestyle, based on prayer, silence, and work. Merton, known in religious life as Louis, was ordained a priest on May 26, 1949. He became a United States citizen in 1951. From 1951 to 1955, he was master of scholastics (students preparing for the priesthood), and from 1955 to 1965 he served as master of novices at Gethsemani.
Merton had written several novels, mostly autobiographical, before he entered Gethsemani. His search for himself and for God caused him to abandon these early aspirations for a time, although he continued to write poetry. His own inclinations and the requirements of his order, however, led him back to writing as part of his monastic vocation. His first published book was Thirty Poems (1944). His early work consisted, aside from his poetry, of short books on contemplation, pamphlets about the Trappist order, collections of notes on Cistercian saints, and two lengthier biographies of Cistercians ( Exile Ends in Glory and What are these Wounds?). In 1948 his autobiography The Seven Storey Mountain -- the story of his conversion and entrance into Gethsemani -- was an immediate best seller and brought him international recognition. Speaking from the margins of society, Merton touched a nerve in the postwar world. During the next twenty years, he produced a large number of books and articles. His major works after The Seven Storey Mountain included Seeds of Contemplation (1949), The Ascent to Truth (1951), The Sign of Jonas (1953), No Man is an Island (1955), Thoughts in Solitude (1958), Disputed Questions (1960), Seeds of Destruction (1964), Seasons of Celebration (1965), Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander (1966), and Faith and Violence (1968). Since his death, more of his writings have been collected and edited, including Thomas Merton on Peace (1971), The Asian Journal (1973), The Collected Poems (1977), The Literary Essays (1981), The Hidden Ground of Love: Letters on Religious Experience and Social Concerns (1985), The Alaskan Journal (1988), and The Road to Joy: Letters to New and Old Friends (1989).
His concern for cultural integrity and social justice led Merton in the 1960s to write on such issues as ecumenism and religious renewal, racial conflict, genocide, nuclear armament, the Vietnam War , ecology, and the Third World. His writings on the non-Christian traditions of Taoism and Zen Buddhism helped to introduce them to American readers. He corresponded widely with scholars and leaders of Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and other religious traditions. In literature his translations of little-known Latin American poets helped to introduce Latin American literature to the United States. Merton was not a systematic writer or thinker, however, and he cannot be considered a theologian in the usual sense of the word.
In 1965 Merton was given permission to withdraw from the routine of community life and to live in solitude on the abbey grounds in a small concrete block cabin. In 1968 he made two extended trips to survey possible sites in New Mexico, Alaska, and California for a more isolated hermitage. After the second trip to California, he left on a pilgrimage to Asia, and in India he had an audience with the Dalai Lama, in exile at Dharamsala from the Communist Chinese government. After visiting Sri Lanka and Singapore, Merton attended a Buddhist-Christian conference on monasticism outside Bangkok, Thailand. He died in his quarters there on December 10, 1968, apparently having touched a fan with faulty wiring while still wet from bathing. He was buried at the Abbey of Gethsemani.
ROBERT E. DAGGY, Entry Author  
Selected Sources from UK Libraries:
Merton, Thomas. Woods, Shore, Desert : A Notebook, May 1968. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico, 1982. Print.
B M558ws 1982, Special Collections Research Center - Biography Collection

Merton, Thomas. The Asian Journal of Thomas Merton. New York: New Directions Pub., 1973. Print. New Directions Book.
BX2350.2 .M449 1973  Young Library -- Books - 3rd Floor

Merton, Thomas. Thomas Merton Collection, 1947-1968. (1947). Print.
75M28, Special Collections Research Center - Manuscripts Collection

Other Sources:

The Thomas Merton Center at Bellarmine University

The Monks of the Abbey of Gethsemani

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 29, 1915 - Victor Mature

Image from louisville.cc/victor-mature/

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia -
Victor Mature, actor, was born in Louisville, on January 29, 1915, to George and Clara (Ackley) Mature. He grew up in the Germantown neighborhood and attended Roman Catholic schools, including St. Xavier High School, before completing his education at the Kentucky Military Institute in Lyndon (1928- 31). Mature, who planned to open a business locally, attended the Spencerian Commercial College during 1933. He sold candy and operated a restaurant until 1935, when he headed for Hollywood, where he became a successful actor.

Mature was spotted by Hollywood talent scouts at the Pasadena Community Playhouse. Soon after, he made his debut in the film One Million B.C. (1941). He went on to star in over fifty films, including No, No, Nanette, The Robe, Samson and Delilah, and Chief Crazy Horse. Mature also performed on stage, most notably in the play Lady in the Dark (1941). He often played the role of the tough leading man. Some of Mature's films had world premieres in the Louisville Palace Theatre, and he returned to Louisville to visit old friends and relatives. Mature has appeared at a variety of charity events in Louisville, especially the Foster Brooks Pro-Am Golf Tournament for Kosair children's hospital.

Divorce ended Mature's first four marriages, to Frances Charles (1938- 41), Martha Stephenson Kemp (1941-43), Dorothy Stanford (1948-55), and Adrienne Joy Urwick (1959-69). Mature married Lorey Sabina in 1972; they have a daughter, Victoria.

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Koster, Henry, Richard Burton, Jean Simmons, Victor. Mature, Michael. Rennie, and Lloyd C. Douglas. The Robe. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2001.
AV-D3045A , Young Media Library

Daves, Delmer, Frank Ross, Philip Dunne, Victor. Mature, Susan Hayward, Michael. Rennie, Debra Paget, Anne Bancroft, Jay Robinson, Barry Jones, William Marshall, and Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation. Demetrius and the Gladiators. Beverly Hills, Calif.: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2000.
AV-D3059, Young Media Library

Ford, John, Samuel G. Engel, Winston Miller, Darryl Francis Zanuck, Sam. Hellman, Stuart N. Lake, Henry Fonda, Linda Darnell, Victor. Mature, Walter Brennan, Tim Holt, Cathy Downs, and Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation. My Darling Clementine Frontier Marshal. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2007. Ford at Fox Collection.
AV-D7601, Young Media Library

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 25, 1923 - Shirley Ardell Mason (Sybil)


Image from www.nytimes.com

From Wikipedia (Accessed 1-20-14):
Shirley Ardell Mason (January 25, 1923 – February 26, 1998) was an American psychiatric patient and commercial artist who was reputed to have multiple personality disorder, now called dissociative identity disorder. Her life was fictionalized in 1973 in the book Sybil, and two films of the same name were made in 1976 and 2007. Both the book and the films used the name Sybil Isabel Dorsett to protect Mason's identity, though the 2007 remake stated Mason's name at its conclusion.

Mason was born and raised in Dodge Center, Minnesota, the only child of Walter Mason (a carpenter and architect) and Martha Alice "Mattie" Hageman. In regard to Mason's mother: "...many people in Dodge Center say Mattie" — "Hattie" in the book — "was bizarre," according to Bettie Borst Christensen, who grew up across the street. "She had a witch-like laugh....She didn't laugh much, but when she did, it was like a screech." Christensen remembers Mason's mother walking around after dark, looking in the neighbors' windows. At one point, Mason's mother was reportedly diagnosed with schizophrenia.[1]

In the early 1950s, Mason was a substitute teacher and a student at Columbia University. She had long suffered from blackouts and emotional breakdowns, and finally entered psychotherapy with Cornelia B. Wilbur, a Freudian psychiatrist. Their sessions together are the basis of the book.

From 1968-1973, she taught art at Rio Grande College, in Rio Grand, Ohio (now the University of Rio Grande).

Some people in Mason's home town, reading the book, recognized Mason as Sybil. By that time, Mason had severed nearly all ties with her past and was living in West Virginia. She later moved to Lexington, Kentucky, where she lived near Dr. Wilbur. She taught art classes at a community college and ran an art gallery out of her home for many years.[1][2]

Wilbur diagnosed Mason with breast cancer in 1990, and she declined treatment; it later went into remission. The following year Wilbur developed Parkinson's disease and Mason moved into Wilbur's house to take care of her until Wilbur's death in 1992. Mason died of breast cancer on February 26, 1998.

Flora Rheta Schreiber's novel Sybil told a fictionalized version of Mason's story. The book stated that Mason had multiple personalities as a result of severe child sexual abuse at the hands of her mother, whom her psychiatrist Cornelia Wilbur believed had been schizophrenic.[3] The book was made into a TV-movie, starring Sally Field and Joanne Woodward, in 1976. The movie was remade in 2007 with Jessica Lange and Tammy Blanchard as Sybil.

Mason's diagnosis has been challenged. Psychiatrist Herbert Spiegel saw Mason for several sessions while Wilbur was on vacation, and felt that Wilbur was manipulating Mason into behaving as though she had multiple personalities when she did not. Spiegel suspected Wilbur of having publicized Mason's case for financial gain. According to Spiegel, Wilbur's client was a hysteric, but did not show signs of multiple personalities; in fact, he later stated that Mason denied to him that she was "multiple", but claimed that Wilbur wanted her to "be" people. Spiegel confronted Wilbur, who responded that the publisher would not publish the book unless it was what she said it was.[4]

Spiegel revealed that he possessed audio tapes in which Wilbur tells Mason about some of the other personalities she has already seen in prior sessions. Spiegel believes these tapes are the "smoking gun" proving that Wilbur induced her client to believe she was multiple. Spiegel did not make these claims until after Schreiber, Wilbur and Mason were all dead.

In August 1998, psychologist Robert Rieber of John Jay College of Criminal Justice challenged Mason's diagnosis, citing the tapes and claiming she was instead an "extremely suggestible hysteric". He claimed Wilbur had manipulated Mason in order to secure a book deal.[5][6] In a review of Rieber's book Bifurcation of the Self, Mark Lawrence asserts that Rieber repeatedly distorted the evidence and left out a number of important facts about Mason's case, in order to advance his case against the validity of the diagnosis.[7]

Debbie Nathan's Sybil Exposed[8] draws upon an archive of Schreiber's papers stored at John Jay College of Criminal Justice[9] and other first-hand sources. Nathan describes the purported manipulation of Wilbur by Mason and vice versa, going into personal detail about the lives of Mason, Wilbur and Schreiber. Nathan ascribes Mason's physical and sensory issues to a lifelong case of pernicious anemia but mistaken at the time for psychogenic symptoms caused by stress. Nathan claims that Wilbur and Mason knowingly perpetrated a fraud. She cites a well-known 1958 letter by Mason (which is reprinted in Sybil) in which she claimed to pose as a multiple for attention and excitement. Wilbur believed this letter was an attempt by Mason to temporarily put off painful therapy. Nathan claims Schreiber wrote Sybil based on stories coaxed from Mason during therapy, and that this case created an "industry" of repressed memory.[10] The case remains controversial. Although Wilbur's papers were destroyed, copies and excerpts within the Flora Rheta Schreiber Papers at the Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College were unsealed in 1998.[9]

Nathan's writing and her research methods have been publicly criticized by Mason's family and by Dr. Patrick Suraci, who was personally acquainted with Shirley Mason. In addition, Suraci claims that Spiegel behaved unethically in withholding tapes which supposedly proved Wilbur had induced Mason to believe she had multiple personalities. Spiegel also claimed to have made films of himself hypnotizing Mason, supposedly proving that Wilbur had "implanted false memories" in her mind, but when Suraci asked to see the films Spiegel said he had lost them.[11][12]

In 2013, artist-journalist Nancy Preston published After Sybil, a personal memoir which includes facsimile reproductions of Mason's personal letters to her, along with color plates of her paintings. According to Preston, Mason taught art at Ohio's Rio Grande College, where Preston was a student. The two became close friends and corresponded until a few days before Mason's death. In the letters, Mason confirmed that she had had multiple personalities.[13]

1. Miller, M; Kantrowitz B (1999-01-24). "Unmasking Sybil". Newsweek. Retrieved 2012-04-16. )
2. Van Arsdale, S (2001-08-02). "Sybil: Famous multiple personality case was a stranger in our midst". Ace Weekly. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
3. Schreiber, Flora Rheta (1973). Sybil. New York: Warner Books, Inc. p. 460. ISBN 0-446-35940-8.
4. Borch-Jacobsen, M (1997-04-24). "Sybil-The Making of a Disease: An Interview with Dr. Herbert Spiegel". New York Review of Books 44 (7). Retrieved 2009-04-02. abstract
5. Rieber, R (1998). "Hypnosis, false memory and multiple personality: a trinity of affinity". History of Psychiatry 10 (37): 3–11. doi:10.1177/0957154X9901003701. PMID 11623821.
6. Schreiber, Flora Rheta; Rieber, Robert W. (2006). The bifurcation of the self: the history and theory of dissociation and its disorders. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-27413-8.
7. Lawrence, M (2008). "Review of Bifurcation of the Self: The history and theory of dissociation and its disorders". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 50 (3): 273–283.
8. Nathan, D (2011). Sybil Exposed. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-6827-1.
9. Nathan, Debbie. "A Girl Not Named Sybil". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
10. Smith, K (2011-10-16). "'Sybil' is one big psych-out". New York Post. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
11. Patrick Suraci, Sybil In Her Own Words: The Untold Story of Shirley Mason, Her Multiple Personalities and Paintings. Abandoned Ladder, 2011.
12. Patrick Suraci, "Sybil In Her Own Words". Review of Sybil Exposed with commentary about Nathan and Spiegel. Huffington Post, December 15, 2011.
13. Nancy Preston, After Sybil: From the Letters of Shirley Mason. Infinity, 2013.

External links
Multiple Personality Controversies Links to many articles about the real Sybil, Shirley Mason.

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Stadler, Holly Barden., Michael. McGlone, and Films for the Humanities. The Multiple Personality Puzzle. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2003.
AV-D5729, Young Media Library

Schreiber, Flora Rheta. Sybil. Chicago: Regnery, 1973. Print.
RC555 .S37 1973, Young Library - 5th Floor

Monday, January 23, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 23, 1947 - Gatewood Galbraith

Image from www.legacy.com

From Wikipedia (Accessed 1/17/2014):
Louis Gatewood Galbraith (January 23, 1947 – January 4, 2012) was an American author and a constitutional attorney from the U.S. Commonwealth of Kentucky. He was a five-time political candidate for governor  of Kentucky.

Early life, education, and law career
Born in Carlisle, Kentucky to Henry Clay and Dollie Galbraith, on January 23, 1947. Gatewood was the fourth of seven children. He graduated from the University of Kentucky in 1974 and from the University of Kentucky College of Law in 1977. Galbraith's law practice focused on criminal law and personal injury civil actions. According to his [2] Linkedin resume, he specialized in the difficult ones, and his interest included the preservation of the Constitution and justice for all.[3] Speaking of difficult ones. It should be noted that during his career, beginning in around June of 1997, he spent nearly 6 yrs driving back and forth, from Lexington Ky. where he resided to Bowling Green, Ky. where practicing as a pro bono attorney in the first felony medical marijuana defense case of advocate, minister and patent Mary L. Thomas aka Rev. Mary Thomas-Spears Indictment # 97-CR-517. Charged originally with 6 Felonies for Trafficking in a Controlled Substance = Marijuana. A case which made U.S. legal history in a marijuana trafficking cases before the Kentucky Courts and the Honorable Judge John D. Minton, Jr. {then known as "hang them high Minton"}
in 2001/2002. When Judge Minton granted a "Stay" in the case, after the appeal in the case had been denied by the Commonwealth Court of Appeals in 2001. [4] Shortly after which, A Review of Tax Law Changes predicted Enacted the Marijuana Tax Stamp by the 2003 General Assembly. John D. Minton, Jr. then was later elected to the Commonwealth Court of Appeals and then moved up to the Supreme Court and in March 3, 2011 Governor Steve Beshear's Communications Office Gov. released "Beshear signs landmark corrections reform bill into law" which decriminalizes personal use of up to 8 oz's of marijuana to a ticket-able offense.

[5]Press Release Date: Thursday, March 03, 2011 " I’m pleased we’re making progress in tackling the problems facing our penal code,” Chief Justice of Kentucky John D. Minton Jr. said. “With all three branches involved in this deliberative process, I’m confident that the outcome will be positive for Kentucky.”

[6]During this time, Gatewood Galbraith represented Richard J. Rawlings, former President of, many years and an official Board Member of the U.S. Marijuana Party pro bono in 2011 in Barren County, Kentucky at the Barren County Courthouse. Where Rawlings faced felony marijuana cultivation, possession, and paraphernalia charge's stemming from a raid on his girlfriend's Sheree Krider's property in Cave City. Sheree former Vice President of the
U.S. Marijuana Party and a Board Member herself. A case that on Nov. 21st, 2011 ended with a [7]Plea Bargain where Felony charges were dropped and Richard Rawlings agreed to time served, court cost and 4 weekends to serve. One weekend for each plant that didn't have a tax stamp.

A quote by Richard J. Rawlings from his Facebook status updates about this case. "I've came back wounded, but not beat. They agreed with a deal that Gatewood Galbraith went to them with. They dropped the felony cultivation to a misdemeanor and I would do 30 days in Jail. After talking to  Gatewood he went back in and did some more talking. After a few minutes in the courtroom he came back out and said the final offer, 4 weekends in jail, and no drug testing. I hate to make deals but this was one I just could not fight without taking a chance of getting Sheree Krider thrown in jail or losing her property. I want to Say Thanks to Mary, Diverse Sanctuary for her support and all the help she has been. She will have some pics and video up in the next day or two. And a Big Thanks to Gatewood, Again!!!" In which he also refers to or connects advocate, minister and patient, Mary L. Thomas-Spears founder of Diverse Sanctuary Community Ministries, whom Gatewood had also represented.

There are those who believe this is evidence that Gatewood Galbraith was successful indeed and is just one reason he was called a "Hero of the people" by many.

Galbraith died of natural causes, though "complications from chronic emphysema" were noted. [8] on January 4, 2012 [9] leaving behind three daughters.

[10]Governor Steve Beshear: "Jane and I were shocked and saddened to learn of Gatewood's passing, Galbraith was a gutsy, articulate and passionate advocate who never shied away from a challenge or potential controversy. His runs for office prove he was willing to do more than just argue about the best direction for the state — he was willing to serve, and was keenly interested in discussing issues directly with our citizens. He will be missed."

[11]Sen. Mitch McConnell: "I am saddened to hear of the passing of Gatewood Galbraith. He was a truly memorable character who loved our state and its people."

[12]NORML remembers Gatewood

[13]Take Back Kentucky a grassroots political organization founded by a long time good friend, Norm Davis remembers Gatewood.

[14]Jan. 5, 2012, Kentucky remembers Gatewood as an Iconic political figure in history.

[15]NPR remembers Gatewood as a Colorful Kentucky Politician.

[16]His good friend Willie Nelson remembers him with a tribute ~ "Rest in Peace".

[17]Jan. 6, 2012, Kentucky ready for hemp? - Bowling Green Daily News: Local News - State Sen. Joey Pendleton, D-Hopkinsville, says as an agricultural product, its time has come. The push for hemp production comes the wake of the death of longtime Kentucky political figure Gatewood Galbraith

[18]Jul 6, 2012 – State Senator Perry Clark introduces Gatewood Galbraith Memorial Medical Marijuana Act

[19]Jan. 4, 2013, ACE Lexington's Weekly Newspaper writes, "Iconic Kentuckian Gatewood Galbraith, the Lexington defense attorney and perennial candidate, died one year ago. “A Celebration of the Life and Times of Gatewood” is scheduled for Sunday, January 6"

[20]Jan. 4, 2013, Mary L. Thomas-Spears launched a web site memorial dedicated to her lawyer, friend, colleague, hero,... [21] and on Feb. 4th, 2013, Ms. Thomas-Spears announces she has re-worded, tailored and slightly redefined the Jack Herer Initiative dubbed [22] CCHI2014 in Cali. An initiative she among others had helped a mutual friend and colleague of Gatewood's, Jack, to word for repeal... [23] Now, this time, she had reworded, redefined CCHHI with Gatewood's understanding, his desires for the Commonwealth, the plant, the people and the continued Repeal of Prohibition in mind for Kentucky and the Kentucky Cannabis Hemp Health Initiative 2014 grassroots lobby campaign  for  repeal  of  all  Commonwealth,  U.S.  and  U.N.  drug  policies  on  all levels  of  government  defining cannabis/marijuana/hemp as prohibit is launched in Kentucky. It is immediately endorsed by the grassroots repeal organization she herself is a founding board member of [24] Americans For Cannabis and their chapter [25] Kentucky For Cannabis, which she currently heads. [26] On February 6 the Facebook page KCHHI was launched.[27] On Feb 12th, it is announced a KCHHI page is added to the Constitutional Cannabis web site she had built as a memorial to Gatewood.

[28] Feb. 14th, It is announced Hemp bill passes first hurdles in Senate by Kentucky media.

Feb. 15th, 2013, It is announced by [29] Kentucky Government "another Senate committee unanimously approved – and the full chamber voted 31-6 to pass – a bill legalizing industrial hemp production in Kentucky" and the [30] Associated Press and media all over Kentucky lead with headlines reading "Industrial hemp bill passes Kentucky Senate".

Political activism
Gatewood was creatively active in many issues and groups. In an amusing stunt Gatewood laid down to protest the UN themed interdependence float for Independence Day Parade (July 4, 1995) in Lexington Kentucky, which got him a charge of interfering with a procession. In 2004, he became a columnist for the Louisville-based alternative weekly Snitch Newsweekly, writing on cases he has handled, and debating with other contributors on civil liberties.

In his writings and speeches Galbraith went into detail on what he termed "Synthetic Subversion". His theory sought to explain when, how and why America, specifically Kentucky, moved from an agricultural agrarian society into an industrial synthetic society. Galbraith claimed that the beginning of this shift can be traced back to the New Deal era spearheaded by Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration. Up until the early 1930s, America and Kentucky relied solely on agriculture to fuel the economy. Galbraith argued that, out of necessity, Roosevelt shifted America toward a more industrial (synthetic) society fueled by alliances with “Greedy Corporations.”

[31] He worked closely  with his long  time friend and  supporter Norm Davis,  gun rights advocate,  activist and Founder of the grassroots organization "Take Back Kentucky" in support of smaller government and preservation of our constitutional freedoms and rights with-in the commonwealth.

[32]A quote from his book "THE LAST FREE MAN IN AMERICA" and the chapter titled "I DECLARE MARIJUANA LEGAL" which begins on page 281. Lays out for all Americans their Constitutional Rights to utilize Marijuana and his Constitutional Argument concerning the Prohibition of Marijuana "They did not say we have a Constitutional right to possess alcohol. They said we have a Constitutional right to privacy in our homes, under which fits the possession of an extremely poisonous alcohol. Now this is the law in Kentucky today. In fact, it is these rulings that keep the Kentucky State Police from kicking down the doors of people possessing alcohol in Kentucky's 77 `dry' counties right now and hauling their butts off to jail." Now Marijuana a demonstrably less harmful substance than alcohol and presents far less of threat to public welfare. So it also fits in a person's right to privacy in their home. It's beyond the police power of the state as long as I don't sell it and it's for my own personal use."

During a debate with former Kentucky Attorney General Greg Stumbo he said, "He obviously thought he could hang me over the marijuana issue, and here I was explaining Constitutional Law to him which, I still don't think he comprehends."

Galbraith appeared onstage,  on TV and  in films  with many notable  public figures,  including well known environmental activist Julia Butterfly Hill, author/filmmaker Christopher Largen, author/activist Jack Herer, country music artist/singer/film star Willie Nelson, artist/author/film star/producer Woody Harrelson,...

Galbraith appeared in the 2003 movie [33] The Hempsters Plant the Seed along with Woody Harrelson, Ralph Nader, Julia  "Butterfly"  Hill.

[33]He was featured in the documentary film, "A NORML Life."

Political campaigns
Galbraith ran for various offices in Kentucky including commissioner of agriculture, governor (five times - as a Democrat in 1991, 1995, and 2007, as a Reform Party candidate in 1999, and as an independent in 2011), U.S. representative (twice), and attorney general.

Galbraith was a vocal advocate for ending the prohibition of cannabis hemp and was known for his witty quips.

Galbraith pitched his campaign for economic, education, and environmental development to voters of all ages throughout the commonwealth. In particular, he proposed real change through what he called, restoring the people's agenda to government and by putting Kentucky values first. Promises included a freeze on college tuition, a $5,000 grant or voucher provided to motivated high school graduates to any institution of higher learning, college  or technical school; Moratorium on all university and college tuition increases; Advancing education through technology; Restore hemp as an agriculture crop; Ending
marijuana cannabis hemp prohibition in Kentucky. Restoration of voting and gun rights of non-violent felons; Agricultural Market Development; Stringent natural resources stewardship; Recreational and tourism development; Water standard enforcement; Expansion of Fish and Wildlife Programs; No state worker furloughs; Expanded energy development; Internet access to all counties; Tax reform, including No income tax for those who earn 50K or less, and small business tax exemptions; Job development; Return investment policy established; Regional economic development offices; Marketing Kentucky's signature industries; An end to fracking and mountain top removal. He
raised $100,000 of his $500,000 budget and was endorsed by the United Mine Workers, the first time the union has backed an independent.[33]

1983 run for Agriculture Commissioner
He ran for Kentucky Agriculture Commissioner after incumbent Democrat Alben Barkley II decided to run instead for Lieutenant Governor. Galbraith ran as a Democrat and ranked last among four candidates in the Democratic primary with 12 percent of the vote. David Boswell won with a plurality of 35 percent.

1991 gubernatorial election
He ran for Kentucky Governor. He ranked last in a four candidate Democratic primary with 5 percent of the vote. Lieutenant Governor Brereton Jones won the primary with a plurality of 38 percent.

1995 gubernatorial election
He ran for governor again at the end of Brereton Jones's term -- although Jones was able to pass an amendment to the state constitution allowing officials to succeed themselves in office once, the amendment exempted then-sitting officials, including Jones. In the Democratic primary, he ranked fourth in a five candidate field with 9 percent of the vote. Lieutenant Governor Paul Patton won with a plurality of 45 percent of the vote. In the general election, Galbraith decided to run as a write in candidate and got just 0.4 percent of the vote.

1999 gubernatorial election
He ran again for governor. This time he ran on the Reform Party ticket and got 15 percent of the vote, the best statewide general election performance of his career. The Republican candidates were Peppy Martin for governor and Wanda Cornelius for lieutenant governor. Incumbent Democratic Governor Paul Patton won re-election with 61 percent of the vote.

2000 congressional election
Galbraith ran for Kentucky's 6th congressional district of the U.S. House of Representatives as an independent. Incumbent Republican U.S. Congressman Ernie Fletcher won re-election with 53 percent of the vote. Democratic nominee, former U.S. Congressman Scotty Baesler, got 35 percent of the vote. Galbraith ranked third with 12 percent.

2002 congressional election
Galbraith decided to run in the 6th District again. Incumbent Republican U.S. Congressman Ernie Fletcher won re-election with 72 percent of the vote. No Democrat filed to run against him. Galbraith, as an independent, ranked second with 26 percent of the vote, his highest percentage in an election.

2003 run for Kentucky Attorney General
Galbraith decided to run for Kentucky Attorney General as an independent. Democrat State Representative Gregory Stumbo won the election with 48 percent of the vote. Republican nominee Jack Wood ranked second with 42 percent of the vote. Galbraith ranked third with 11 percent.

2007 gubernatorial election
Galbraith decided to run for governor a fourth time. This time, he decided to run as a Democrat, the first time since 1995. In the Democratic primary, Galbraith ranked fifth in a six- candidate field with 6 percent of the vote. He carried Nicholas County with 32 percent. Lieutenant Governor Steve Beshear won with a plurality of 41 percent of the vote. Bruce Lunsford ranked second with 21 percent. Former Lieutenant Governor Steve Henry ranked third with 17 percent. Speaker of the Kentucky House Jody Richards ranked fourth with 13 percent.

2011 gubernatorial election
Galbraith decided to run for governor a fifth time. This time, he decided to run as an independent. Incumbent Democrat Governor Steve Beshear won re-election with 56 percent of the vote. Republican State Senator David Williams of Burkesville, the President of the State Senate, ranked second with 35 percent. Galbraith trailed with 9 percent.

Published work
•   Galbraith, Gatewood (2004). The Last Free Man In America Meets The Synthetic Subversion. Outskirts Press. ISBN 1-932672-35-4.

Selected Source from UK Libraries:

Galbraith, G. (2004). The last free man in America : Meets the synthetic subversion : An autobiography. Parker, Colo.]: Outskirts Press.
E840.8.G35 G35 2004, Young Library - 4th Floor and Special Collections Research Center

Sunday, January 22, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 22, 1937 - Sallie Bingham


Image from salliebingham.com

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia -
Sarah ("Sallie") Montague Bingham, author, the daughter of George Barry, Sr. , and Mary (Caperton) Bingham , was born January 22, 1937, in Louisville. Her father was editor and publisher of the Louisville Courier-Journal and Louisville Times. She graduated magna cum laude from Radcliffe College in 1958. Bingham's first novel, After Such Knowledge, was published in 1960. It was followed by two collections of short stories, The Touching Hand (1967) and The Way It Is Now (1972); both include penetrating portrayals of children and adolescents.
After the sale of the Bingham communications empire in 1986, Sallie Bingham devoted part of her share of the proceeds to establishing the Kentucky Foundation for Women which supports original work by women as well as other programs for women. It also publishes the American Voice, a literary quarterly that has been a forum for local, unknown writers as well as the nationally and internationally famous.
Thrice married, Bingham has three sons, Barry Ellsworth and Will and Chris Iovenko, and a stepson, Doug Peters.
BONNIE JEAN COX , Entry Author

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Bingham, S. (1960). After such knowledge. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
F B5134af 1960, Special Collections Research Center – Fiction Collection

Bingham, S. (1972). The way it is now : Stories. New York: Viking Press.
PS3552.I5 W390 1972, Young Library - 5th Floor

Bingham, S., Koda-Callan, E., & Baker, D. (1989). Passion and prejudice : A family memoir (1st ed.). New York: Knopf.
CT275.B5737 A3 1989, Young Library -- Books - 3rd Floor

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 22, 1875 - D.W. Griffith

Image from biography.com

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia -
The motion picture producer D.W. Griffith was born on January 22, 1875, on a 264-acre farm in Oldham County , Kentucky, some twenty miles from Louisville. His mother, the former Mary Oglesby, came from a prosperous Oldham County family. His father, Jacob Wark Griffith, commanded a Confederate cavalry company as part of the Kentucky Brigade throughout the Civil War. Griffith was ten years old when his father died, leaving the family in debt. In 1889 Mary Griffith moved with her children to Louisville, where she took in boarders. Griffith quit school in 1890 and worked as a clerk until 1896, when he signed on as an actor with a touring stock company. For the next ten years, Griffith had only very modest success as an actor. He moved from Louisville in 1899, living first in New York City and then in San Francisco, where he met Linda Arvidson Johnson, an actress whom he married on May 14, 1906.

Griffith and his wife settled in New York City, where he completed writing the play The Fool and the Girl, which closed after a brief run. To tide him over while he pursued his career as a playwright, Griffith sought employment in the fledgling motion picture industry. His first role as a film actor was in the Edison Company's Rescued from the Eagle's Nest (1908). Soon after, he was hired by the Biograph Company, where acting led to work as a writer of scenarios and then as a director, beginning with The Adventures of Dolly, released in July 1908. Griffith's tenure at Biograph from 1908 to 1913 was extraordinary; working with soon-to-be-famous performers like Mary Pickford and Lillian Gish, Griffith directed more than 450 short films, specializing in melodramas, literary adaptations, historical dramas, and films about contemporary social problems. More important, Griffith contributed much to the development of film as a narrative art through his ability to orchestrate actors, sets, camera movement, and lighting in the staging of individual scenes. Through his experiments with editing, he greatly refined the techniques of closeups, for example, and suspenseful cross-cutting. Griffith also made films of unusual length, and the culmination of his career at Biograph was the four-reel Judith of Bethulia (1913), a biblical-era spectacle.

The following year Griffith left Biograph and began work on his most famous film, The Birth of a Nation (1915). Based on Thomas Dixon's The Clansman, a novel glorifying the heroic exploits of the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction, the twelve-reel Birth cost more than $100,000 to produce. It epitomizes Griffith's technical virtuosity as well as his preoccupation with the melodramatic struggle between good and evil. Birth also perpetuates the worst nineteenth century racist stereotypes, and at the time of its initial release was the subject of vigorous protest by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). This controversy, however, only added to its box office revenues, which are estimated to have been at least $60 million.
Buoyed by the success of Birth, Griffith began an even more ambitious epic, Intolerance (1916), which combines stories from four historical periods. For all its spectacular sets and lavish attention to detail, Intolerance did not fare as well as Birth, nor did any of the subsequent twenty-six films Griffith directed between 1917 and 1931, although several of these films are noteworthy, especially Broken Blossoms (1919), Way Down East (1920), Orphans of the Storm (1921), and America (1924). In 1919 Griffith formed the United Artists company with the three major stars of American film, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pickford. He also invested (and lost) much of his personal fortune in building his own studio in Mamaroneck, New York. After the motion picture industry adopted sound in the late 1920s, Griffith produced only two talkies, Abraham Lincoln (1930) and The Struggle (1931). The failure of The Struggle for all purposes ended Griffith's career in the movies, though he continued to write and to plan various projects.

Griffith retained an attachment to his Kentucky roots, and during the later 1930s he spent much of his time in his home state. Griffith died on July 23, 1948, and was buried at Mt. Tabor Christian Church in Oldham County, where he had worshipped as a child.
GREGORY A. WALLER, Entry Author 

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Brown, K. (1973). Adventures with D. W. Griffith. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
PN1998.A3 G7216, Young Library - 5th Floor

Henderson, R. (1972). D. W. Griffith: His life and work. New York: Oxford University Press.
PN1998.A3 G748, Young Library - 5th Floor

Gunning, T. (1991). D.W. Griffith and the origins of American narrative film : The early years at Biograph. Urbana: University of Illinois Press
PN1998.3.G76 G8 1991, Young Library - 5th Floor

Saturday, January 21, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 21, 1915- Edward Fretwell Prichard, Jr.

Image from the Kentucky Historical Society

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia -

Edward Fretwell Prichard, Jr., attorney and noted political adviser, was born on January 21, 1915, in Paris, Kentucky, the son of Edward and Allene (Power) Prichard. Prichard attended public schools and entered Princeton University at the age of fifteen. Graduating from college at the top of his class, he entered Harvard law school and, upon graduation, became research assistant to professor Felix Frankfurter. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Frankfurter to the U.S. Supreme court, Prichard joined him in Washington, D.C., as his law clerk. After a year Prichard moved to the Immigration Service in the Justice Department and then served as assistant to the U.S. attorney general and on the War Production Board. In 1942, at the age of twenty-seven, he became legal counsel and adviser to President Roosevelt. In Washington he impressed political observers such as Katherine Graham, later publisher of the Washington Post.

In 1945 Prichard returned to Kentucky to practice law. Raised in a highly political Bourbon County family and touted in the press as a "boy wonder," Prichard at thirty made it clear that his eye was on the governorship of Kentucky, and he was considered a prime choice to succeed Earle Clements . It was shocking, therefore, when Prichard was convicted of vote fraud conspiracy in the 1948 Bourbon County election and sentenced to two years in federal prison. He had served five months when President Harry S. Truman pardoned him in 1950.

Prichard returned to his law practice, and by the late 1950s had begun his slow and difficult political rebirth as a campaign strategist for Bert Combs. In the ensuing years, he advised Govs. Clements, Wetherby , Combs, and Breathitt and, to a lesser degree, Carroll and Brown. Nicknamed "the Philosopher" by Combs, Prichard came to be considered by many to be Kentucky's greatest intellect and sharpest legal mind. His voracious appetite for all forms of intellectual stimulation was legendary, as were his gifts of wit and repartee. The stigma of his conviction remained, however, and he never sought political office himself.

Prichard emerged as Kentucky's most visible political sage through the late 1960s and 1970s. In political philosophy he was a strong advocate of civil rights, strip mine regulation, constitutional reform, improved health care, and public education. In 1966 Gov. Edward Breathitt (1963-67) appointed Prichard to the Council on Higher Education , beginning the period of his full return to public life. Serving often as the council's vice chairman, he became a powerful advocate for Kentucky's universities. In 1980, the council appointed a citizens' committee to recommend improvements in Kentucky's universities, and Prichard led the committee in preparing its 1981 report on higher education, In Pursuit of Excellence. The committee afterward became an independent organization, the Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence .

In 1947 Prichard married Lucy Elliott of Woodford County . He died on December 23, 1984, and was buried in the Paris Cemetery.

ROBERT F. SEXTON, Entry Author

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Campbell, T. (1998). Short of the glory : The fall and redemption of Edward F. Prichard, Jr. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

E748.P88 C36 1998, Young Library - 4th Floor

Hellard, V., Birdwhistell, T., Klotter, J., Campbell, T., & Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History. (1982). Edward F. Prichard, Jr. Oral History Project.
Special Collections Research Center - Oral History Collection

Prichard, E. (1935). Popular political movements in Kentucky, 1875-1900.
B-723, Young Library - Periodicals Desk Microfilm

Friday, January 20, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 20, 1926 - Patricia Neal

Image from popcultureaddict.com

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia -
Patricia Neal, actress, was born January 20, 1926, in Packard, Whitely County, Kentucky, to William and Eura (Petry) Neal. After studying drama at Northwestern University and working as a model, Neal made her Broadway debut in The Voice Of The Turtle in 1946. In 1949 John Loves Mary, her first film, was released. Neal's marriage to Roald Dahl, a British screenwriter and novelist, in 1953 led to her prolonged absence from the screen. Neal's return in A Face In The Crowd (1957) established her as one of Hollywood's top actresses. In 1963 the deep-voiced actress received an Academy Award for her performance in Hud, a modern western. 

In 1965 Neal suffered a series of strokes that left her partially paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair. She recovered and returned to acting, starring in the 1968 production of The Subject Was Roses, which brought her another Oscar nomination. Her most recent film is An Unremarkable Life (1989).

Neal and Dahl divorced in 1983; they have five children, Olivia Twenty, Tessa Sophia, Theo Matthew, Ophelia Magdaline, and Lucy.

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Shearer, S. (2006). Patricia Neal : An unquiet life. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

PN2287.N33 S54 2006, Young Library - 5th Floor

Neal, P., & DeNeut, R. (1988). As I am : An autobiography. New York: Simon and Schuster.

B N2547as 1988, Special Collections Research Center - Biography Collection

Blaustein, J., Wise, R., North, E., Rennie, M., Neal, P., Marlowe, H., . . . Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation. (2008). The day the earth stood still (Two disc special ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment.
AV-D7300, Young Media Library

McMurtry, L., Ritt, M., Ravetch, I., Newman, P., Neal, P., Douglas, M., . . . Paramount Pictures Corporation. (1997). Hud. Hollywood, CA: Paramount Pictures.

AV-V3033, Young Media Library

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable: Kentuckians: January 17, 1875 – Cora Wilson Stewart

Image from exploreuk.uky.edu

From The Kentucky Encyclopedia –
Cora (Wilson) Stewart, pioneer in adult education, was born to Dr. Jeremiah and Annie Eliza (Hally) Wilson on January 17, 1875, and reared in Farmers, Rowan County, Kentucky. She attended Morehead Normal School and the National Normal University in Lebanon, Ohio, and then began a teaching career in her home county in 1895. She quickly earned a reputation as an outstanding educator, and in 1901 she was elected Rowan County school superintendent. In 1904 she married Alexander T. Stewart, a Rowan County school teacher. Cora Stewart was reelected school superintendent in 1909 and two years later became the first woman president of the Kentucky Educational Association .

In 1911 Stewart launched an experimental adult education program, the moonlight school, to combat illiteracy in her home county. In 1923 Stewart was elected to the executive committee of the National Education Association. Six years later President Herbert Hoover named her to chair the executive committee of the National Advisory Committee on Illiteracy. She also presided over the illiteracy section of the World Conference on Education. Success and recognition brought prizes and honors. In 1924, for example, she received Pictorial Review's $5,000 achievement prize for her contribution to human welfare, and in 1930 she accepted the Ella Flagg Young Medal for distinguished service in the field of education.

She moved to Pine Bluff, Arkansas, in 1936 and subsequently to various rest homes in North Carolina. She died on December 2, 1958, and was buried in Tryon, North Carolina.

JAMES M. GIFFORD, Entry Author

Selected Sources from UK Libraries:

Baldwin, Yvonne Honeycutt. Cora Wilson Stewart and the Illiteracy Crusade : Moonlight Schools and Progressive Reform. Lexington, Ky.: [s.n.], 1996. Print.
Theses 1996, Young Library - Theses 5th Floor Stacks

Nelms, Willie. Cora Wilson Stewart : Crusader against Illiteracy. Lexington, Ky.: [s.n.], 1973. Print.
LA2317.S826 N45 1997, Young Library - 4th Floor

Baldwin, Yvonne Honeycutt, and Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History. Cora Wilson Stewart Oral History Project. 1990.
OHCWS, Special Collections Research Center - Oral History Collection

Monday, January 16, 2017

Birth Dates of Notable Kentuckians: January 16, 1943 - Dian Fossey

Image from www.britannica.com

From Wikipedia (Accesed January 6, 2016):
Dian Fossey (/daɪˈæn ˈfɒsi/; January 16, 1932 – c. December 26, 1985) was an American zoologist, primatologist, and anthropologist who undertook an extensive study of mountain gorilla groups over a period of 18 years. She studied them daily in the mountain forests of Rwanda, initially encouraged to work there by anthropologist Louis Leakey. Her 1983 book, Gorillas in the Mist, combines her scientific study of the gorillas at Karisoke Research Center with her own personal story. It was adapted into a 1988 film of the same name. Fossey was murdered in 1985; the case remains open.[1]

Called one of the foremost primatologists in the world while she was alive, Fossey, along with Jane Goodall and Birutė Galdikas, were the so-called Trimates, a group of three prominent researchers on primates (Fossey on gorillas; Goodall on common chimpanzees; and Galdikas on orangutans) sent by Leakey to study great apes in their natural environments.[2][3]

Life and career
Fossey was born in San Francisco, California, the daughter of Kathryn "Kitty" (née Kidd), a fashion model, and George E. Fossey III, an insurance agent.[1] Her parents divorced when she was six.[4] Her mother remarried the following year, to businessman Richard Price. Her father tried to keep in full contact, but her mother discouraged it, and all contact was subsequently lost.[5] Dian's stepfather, Richard Price, never treated Dian as his own child. He would not allow Dian to sit at the dining room table with him or Dian's mother during dinner meals.[6] A man adhering to strict discipline, Richard Price offered Dian little to no emotional support.[7] Struggling with personal insecurity, Dian turned to animals as a way to gain acceptance.[8] Her love for animals began with her first pet goldfish and continued throughout her entire life.[6] At age six, she began horse riding, earning a letter from her school; by her graduation in 1954, Fossey had established herself as an equestrienne.

Educated at Lowell High School, following the guidance of her stepfather she enrolled in a business course at the College of Marin. However, spending her summer on a ranch in Montana at age 19 rekindled her love of animals, and she enrolled in a pre-veterinary course in biology at the University of California, Davis. In defiance to her stepfather's wishes that she attend a business school, Dian wanted to spend her professional life working with animals. As a consequence, Dian's parents failed to give her any substantial amount of financial support throughout her adult life.[6] She supported herself by working as a clerk at White Front (a department store), doing other clerking and laboratory work, and laboring as a machinist in a factory.

Although Fossey had always been an exemplary student, she had difficulties with basic sciences including chemistry and physics, and failed her second year of the program. She transferred to San Jose State College where she was a member of Kappa Alpha Theta sorority to study occupational therapy, receiving her bachelor's degree in 1954.[9] Initially following her college major, Fossey began a career in occupational therapy. She interned at various hospitals in California and worked with tuberculosis patients.[10] Fossey was originally a prizewinning equestrian, which drew her to Kentucky in 1955, and a year later took a job as an occupational therapist at the Kosair Crippled Children's Hospital.[11]

Her shy and reserved personality allowed her to work well with the children at the hospital.[12] Fossey became close with her coworker Mary White "Gaynee" Henry, secretary to the hospital's chief administrator and the wife of one of the doctors, Michael J. Henry. The Henrys invited Fossey to join them on their family farm, where she worked with livestock on a daily basis and also experienced an inclusive family atmosphere that had been missing for most of her life.[5][13] During her free time she would pursue her love of horses.[14]

Interest in Africa
Fossey turned down an offer to join the Henrys on an African tour due to lack of finances,[5] but in 1963 she borrowed $8,000 (one year's salary), took out her life savings[15] and went on a seven-week visit to Africa.[4] In September 1963, she arrived in Nairobi, Kenya.[10] While there, she met actor William Holden, owner of Treetops Hotel,[4] who introduced her to her safari guide, John Alexander.[4] Alexander became her guide for the next seven weeks through Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rhodesia. Alexander's route included visits to Tsavo, Africa's largest national park; the saline lake of Manyara, famous for attracting giant flocks of flamingos; and the Ngorongoro Crater, well known for its abundant wildlife.[10] The final two sites for her visit were Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania (the archeological site of Louis and Mary Leakey); and Mt. Mikeno in Congo, where in 1959, American zoologist George Schaller had carried out a yearlong pioneering study of the mountain gorilla. At Olduvai Gorge, Fossey met the Leakeys while they were examining the area for hominid fossils. Leakey talked to Fossey about the work of Jane Goodall and the importance of long-term research of the great apes.[10] Although she had broken her ankle while visiting the Leakeys,[10] by October 16, Fossey was staying in Walter Baumgartel's small hotel in Uganda, the Travellers Rest. Baumgartel, an advocate of gorilla conservation, was among the first to see the benefits that tourism could bring to the area, and he introduced Fossey to Kenyan wildlife photographers Joan and Alan Root. The couple agreed to allow Fossey and Alexander to camp behind their own camp, and it was during these few days that Fossey first encountered wild mountain gorillas.[10] After staying with friends in Rhodesia, Fossey returned home to Louisville to repay her loans. She published three articles in The Courier-Journal newspaper, detailing her visit to Africa.[4][10]

Research in the Congo

Gorilla mother with cub in Virunga National Park in the Congo

When Leakey made an appearance in Louisville while on a nationwide lecture tour, Fossey took the color supplements that had appeared about her African trip in The Courier-Journal to show to Leakey, who remembered her and her interest in mountain gorillas. Three years after the original safari, Leakey suggested that Fossey could undertake a long-term study of the gorillas in the same manner as Jane Goodall had with chimpanzees in Tanzania.[16] Leakey lined up funding for Fossey to research mountain gorillas, and Fossey left her job to relocate to Africa.[17]

After studying Swahili and auditing a class on primatology (the scientific study of primates) during the eight months it took to get her visa and funding, Fossey arrived in Nairobi in December 1966. With the help of Joan Root and Leakey, Fossey acquired the necessary provisions and an old canvas-topped Land Rover which she named "Lily". On the way to the Congo, Fossey visited the Gombe Stream Research Centre to meet Goodall and observe her research methods with chimpanzees.[10] Accompanied by photographer Alan Root, who helped her obtain work permits for the Virunga Mountains, Fossey began her field study at Kabara, in the Congo in early 1967, in the same meadow where Schaller had made his camp seven years earlier.[18] Root taught her basic gorilla tracking, and his tracker Sanwekwe later helped in Fossey's camp. Living in tents on mainly tinned produce, once a month Fossey would hike down the mountain to "Lily" and make the two-hour drive to the village of Kikumba to restock.[10]

Fossey identified three distinct groups in her study area, but could not get close to them. She eventually found that mimicking their actions and making grunting sounds assured them, together with submissive behaviour and eating of the local celery plant.[18] She later attributed her success with habituating gorillas to her experience working as an occupational therapist with autistic children.[16] Like George Schaller, Fossey relied greatly on individual "noseprints" for identification, initially via sketching and later by camera.[10

Fossey had arrived in the Congo in locally turbulent times. Known as the Belgian Congo until its independence in June 1960, unrest and rebellion plagued the new government until 1965, when Lieutenant General Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, by then commander-in-chief of the national army, seized control of the country and declared himself president for five years during what is now called the Congo Crisis. During the political upheaval, a rebellion and battles took place in the Kivu Province. On July 9, 1967, soldiers arrived at the camp to escort Fossey and her research workers down, and she was interned at Rumangabo for two weeks. Fossey eventually escaped through bribery to Walter Baumgärtel's Travellers Rest Hotel in Kisoro, where her escort was arrested by the Ugandan military.[10][19] Advised by the Ugandan authorities not to return to Congo, after meeting Leakey in Nairobi, Fossey agreed with him against US Embassy advice to restart her study on the Rwandan side of the Virungas.[10] In Rwanda, Fossey had met local American expatriate Rosamond Carr, who introduced her to Belgian local Alyette DeMunck; DeMunck had a local's knowledge of Rwanda and offered to find Fossey a suitable site for study.[10]

Conservation work in Rwanda


 Fossey established her research camp on the foothills of Mount Visoke.

On September 24, 1967, Fossey founded the Karisoke Research Center, a remote rainforest camp nestled in Ruhengeri province in the saddle of two volcanoes. For the research center's name, Fossey used "Kari" for the first four letters of Mount Karisimbi that overlooked her camp from the south, and "soke" for the last four letters of Mount Visoke, the slopes of which rose to the north, directly behind camp.[10] Established 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) up Mount Visoke, the defined study area covered 25 square kilometres (9.7 sq mi).[20] She became known by locals as Nyirmachabelli, or Nyiramacibiri, roughly translated as "The woman who lives alone on the mountain."[21]

Unlike the gorillas from the Congo side of the Virungas, the Karisoke area gorillas had never been partially habituated by Schaller's study; they knew humans only as poachers, and it took longer for Fossey to be able to study the Karisoke gorillas at a close distance.[22]

Many research students left after not being able to handle the cold, dark, and extremely muddy conditions around Karisoke on the slopes of the Virunga Volcanoes, where paths usually had to be cut through six-foot-tall grass with a machete.[23]

Opposition to poaching
While hunting had been illegal in the national park of the Virunga Volcanoes in Rwanda since the 1920s, the law was rarely enforced by park conservators, who were often bribed by poachers and paid a salary less than Fossey's own African staff.[16] On three occasions, Fossey wrote that she witnessed the aftermath of the capture of infant gorillas at the behest of the park conservators for zoos; since gorillas will fight to the death to protect their young, the kidnappings would often result in up to 10 adult gorillas' deaths.[16] Through the Digit Fund, Fossey financed patrols to destroy poachers' traps in the Karisoke study area. In four months in 1979, the Fossey patrol consisting of four African staffers destroyed 987 poachers' traps in the research area's vicinity.[24] The official Rwandan national park guards, consisting of 24 staffers, did not eradicate any poachers' traps during the same period.[24] In the eastern portion of the park not patrolled by Fossey, poachers virtually eradicated all the park's elephants for ivory and killed more than a dozen gorillas.[24]

Fossey helped in the arrest of several poachers, some of whom served or are serving long prison sentences.[25]

In 1978, Fossey attempted to prevent the export of two young gorillas, Coco and Pucker, from Rwanda to the zoo in Cologne, Germany. During the capture of the infants at the behest of the Cologne Zoo and Rwandan park conservator, 20 adult gorillas had been killed.[26] The infant gorillas were given to Fossey by the park conservator of the Virunga Volcanoes for treatment of injuries suffered during their capture and captivity. With considerable effort, she restored them to some approximation of health. Over Fossey's objections, the gorillas were shipped to Cologne, where they lived nine years in captivity, both dying in the same month.[16] She viewed the holding of animals in "prison" (zoos) for the entertainment of people as unethical.[27]

While gorillas from rival gang groups on the mountains that were not part of Fossey's study had often been found poached five to ten at a time, and had spurred Fossey to conduct her own anti-poaching patrols, Fossey's study groups had not been direct victims of poaching until Fossey's favorite gorilla Digit was killed in 1978. Later that year, the silverback of Digit's Group 4, named for Fossey's Uncle Bert, was shot in the heart while trying to save his son, Kweli, from being seized by poachers cooperating with the Rwandan park conservator.[28] Kweli's mother, Macho, was also killed in the raid, but Kweli was not captured due to Uncle Bert's intervention; however, three-year-old Kweli died slowly and painfully of gangrene, from being brushed by a poacher's bullet.[27][28]

According to Fossey's letters, ORTPN (the Rwandan national park system), the World Wildlife Fund, African Wildlife Foundation, Fauna Preservation Society, the Mountain Gorilla Project and some of her former students tried to wrest control of the Karisoke research center from her for the purpose of tourism, by portraying her as unstable. In her last two years, Fossey claims not to have lost any gorillas to poachers; however, the Mountain Gorilla Project, which was supposed to patrol the Mount Sabyinyo area, tried to cover up gorilla deaths caused by poaching and diseases transmitted through tourists. Nevertheless, these organizations received most of the public donations directed towards gorilla conservation.[16] The public often believed their money would go to Fossey, who was struggling to finance her anti-poaching and bushmeat hunting patrols, while organizations collecting in her name put it into tourism projects and as she put it "to pay the airfare of so-called conservationists who will never go on anti-poaching patrols in their life." Fossey described the differing two philosophies as her own "active conservation" or the international conservation groups' "theoretical conservation."[25]

Opposition to tourism
Fossey strongly opposed wildlife tourism, as gorillas are very susceptible to human anthroponotic diseases like influenza for which they have no immunity. Fossey reported several cases in which gorillas died because of diseases spread by tourists. She also viewed tourism as an interference into their natural wild behaviour.[16] Fossey also criticised tourist programs, often paid for by international conservation organisations, for interfering with both her research and the peace of the mountain gorillas' habitat.[25]

Today, however, the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International promotes tourism, which they say helps to create a stable and sustainable local community dedicated to protecting the gorillas and their habitat.[29]

Preservation of habitat
Fossey is responsible for the revision of a European Community project that converted parkland into pyrethrum farms. Thanks to her efforts, the park boundary was lowered from the 3,000-meter line to the 2,500-meter line.[16]

Digit Fund

 The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International in Rwanda.

Sometime during the day on New Year's Eve 1977, Fossey's favorite gorilla, Digit, was killed by poachers. As the sentry of study group 4, he defended the group against six poachers and their dogs, who ran across the gorilla study group while checking antelope traplines. Digit took five spear wounds in ferocious self-defence and managed to kill one of the poachers' dogs, allowing the other 13 members of his group to escape.[30] Poachers sell gorilla hands as delicacies, magic charms or to make ash trays.[31] Digit was decapitated, and his hands cut off for ashtrays, for the price of $20. After his mutilated body was discovered by research assistant Ian Redmond, Fossey's group captured one of the killers. He revealed the names of his five accomplices, three of whom were later imprisoned.[32]

Fossey subsequently created the Digit Fund (now the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International in the USA)[33] to raise money for anti-poaching patrols.[27] In addition, a consortium of international gorilla funds arose to accept donations in light of Digit's death and increased attention on poaching.[28] Fossey mostly opposed the efforts of the international organisations, which she felt inefficiently directed their funds towards more equipment for Rwandan park officials, some of whom were alleged to have ordered some of the gorilla poachings in the first place.[28]

The deaths of some of her most studied gorillas caused Fossey to devote more of her attention to preventing poaching and less on scientific publishing and research.[28] Fossey became more intense in protecting the gorillas and began to employ more direct tactics: she and her staff cut animal traps almost as soon as they were set; frightened, captured and humiliated the poachers; held their cattle for ransom; burned their hunting camps and even mats from their houses.[4] Fossey also constantly challenged the local officials to enforce the law and assist her.

Personal life
During her African safari, Fossey met Alexie Forrester, the brother of an African she had been dating in Louisville; Fossey and Forrester later became engaged. In her later years, Fossey became involved with National Geographic photographer Bob Campbell after a year of working together at Karisoke, with Campbell promising to leave his wife.[4] Eventually the pair grew apart through her dedication to the gorillas and Karisoke, along with his need to work further afield and his marriage. In 1970, during her time in Cambridge to get her Ph.D., she discovered she was pregnant and had an abortion, later commenting that "you can't be a cover girl for National Geographic magazine and be pregnant."[4] Fossey had other relationships throughout the years and always had a love for children.[3] Since Fossey would rescue any abused or abandoned animal she saw in Africa or near Karisoke, she acquired a menagerie in the camp, including a monkey who lived in her cabin, Kima, and a dog, Cindy. Fossey held Christmas parties every year for her researchers, staffers, and their families, and she developed a genuine friendship with Jane Goodall.[34]

Fossey had been plagued by lung problems from an early age, and later in her life, she suffered from advanced emphysema brought on by years of heavy cigarette smoking.[35][36] As the debilitating disease progressed— further aggravated by the high mountain altitude and damp climate— Fossey found it increasingly difficult to conduct field research, frequently suffering from shortness of breath and requiring the help of an oxygen tank when climbing or hiking long distances.[37]Fossey had been plagued by lung problems from an early age, and later in her life, she suffered from advanced emphysema brought on by years of heavy cigarette smoking.[35][36] As the debilitating disease progressed— further aggravated by the high mountain altitude and damp climate— Fossey found it increasingly difficult to conduct field research, frequently suffering from shortness of breath and requiring the help of an oxygen tank when climbing or hiking long distances.[37]

In the early morning of December 27, 1985, Fossey was discovered murdered in the bedroom of her cabin located at the far edge of the camp in the Virunga Mountains, Rwanda.[38] Her body was found face-up near the two beds where she slept, roughly 7 feet (2 m) away from a hole that her assailant(s) had apparently cut in the wall of the cabin.[38] Wayne Richard McGuire, Fossey's last research assistant at Karisoke, was summoned to the scene by Fossey's house servant and found her bludgeoned to death, reporting that "when I reached down to check her vital signs, I saw her face had been split, diagonally, with one machete blow."[38] The cabin was littered with broken glass and overturned furniture, with a 9-mm handgun and ammunition beside her on the floor.[38] Robbery was not believed to be the motive for the crime, as Fossey's valuables were still in the cabin, including her passport, handguns, and thousands of dollars in U.S. bills and traveler's checks.[38][39]

The last entry in her diary read:[40]

When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate more on the preservation of the future.

Fossey is buried at Karisoke,[41][42] in a site that she herself had constructed for her deceased gorilla friends. She was buried in the gorilla graveyard next to Digit, and near many gorillas killed by poachers. Memorial services were also held in New York, Washington, and California.[43]

A will purporting to be Fossey's bequeathed all of her estate (including the proceeds from the film Gorillas in the Mist) to the Digit Fund to underwrite anti-poaching patrols. Fossey did not mention her family in the will, which was unsigned. Her mother, Hazel Fossey Price, challenged the will and was successful.[16] Supreme Court Justice Swartwood threw out the will and awarded the estate to her mother, including about $4.9 million in royalties from a recent book and upcoming movie, stating that the document "was simply a draft of her purported will and not a will at all." Price said she was working on a project to preserve the work their daughter had done for the mountain gorillas in Rwanda, located in eastern central Africa south of Uganda.[44]

After Fossey's death, her entire staff, including Rwelekana, a tracker she had fired months before, were arrested. All were later released except Rwelekana, who was later found dead in prison, supposedly having hanged himself.[16]

Rwandan courts later tried and convicted Wayne McGuire in absentia for her murder. McGuire had returned to the United States following the murder, and because no extradition treaty exists between the U.S. and Rwanda, McGuire, whose guilt is still widely questioned, has not served his sentence.[16]

Following his return to the U.S., McGuire gave a brief statement at a news conference in Century City, Los Angeles, saying Fossey had been his "friend and mentor", calling her death "tragic" and the charges "outrageous".[45] Thereafter, McGuire was largely under the radar until 2005, when news broke that he had been accepted for a job with the Health and Human Services division of the State of Nebraska. The job offer was revoked upon discovery of his relation to the Fossey case.[46]

Several subsequent books, including Farley Mowat's biography of Fossey, Woman in the Mists (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1987), have suggested alternate theories regarding her murder including intimations that she may have been killed by financial interests linked to tourism or illicit trade.

Fossey was reported to have captured and held Rwandans whom she suspected of poaching and then stripped and beaten them with stinging nettles.[47] After her murder, Fossey's National Geographic editor, Mary Smith, told Shlachter that the famed gorilla expert on visits to the United States would "load up on firecrackers, cheap toys and magic tricks as part of her method to mystify the (Africans) -- hold them at bay."[48]

Writing in The Wall Street Journal in 2002, Tunku Varadarajan described Fossey at the end of her life as colourful, controversial, and "a racist alcoholic who regarded her gorillas as better than the African people who lived around them."[4][49]

Scientific achievements
Fossey made discoveries about gorillas including how females transfer from group to group over the decades, gorilla vocalization, hierarchies and social relationships among groups, rare infanticide, gorilla diet, and how gorillas recycle nutrients.[50] Fossey's research was funded by the Wilkie Foundation and the Leakey Home, with primary funding from the National Geographic Society.[51]

By 1980, Fossey, who had obtained her PhD at Cambridge University in the UK, was recognized as the world's leading authority on the physiology and behaviour of mountain gorillas, defining gorillas as being "dignified, highly social, gentle giants, with individual personalities, and strong family relationships."[5]

Fossey lectured as professor at Cornell University in 1981–83. Her bestselling book Gorillas in the Mist was praised by Nikolaas Tinbergen, the Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who won the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Her book remains the best-selling book about gorillas.[16]

After her death, Fossey's Digit Fund in the U.S. was renamed the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International.[52] The Karisoke Research Center is operated by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, and continues the daily gorilla monitoring and protection that she started.

Shirley McGreal, a friend of Fossey,[53] continues to work for the protection of primates through the work of her International Primate Protection League (IPPL) one of the few wildlife organizations that according to Fossey effectively promotes "active conservation".

Between Fossey's death until the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Karisoke was directed by former students, some of whom had opposed her.[16] During the genocide and subsequent period of insecurity, the camp was completely looted and destroyed. Today only remnants remain of her cabin. During the civil war, the Virunga National Park was filled with refugees, and illegal logging destroyed vast areas.

The Rwandan people adapted the traditional household baby naming ceremony Kwita Izina to use with the gorillas.

Her 82nd birthday in 2014 was marked by a Google Doodle appearing on its search homepage worldwide.[54]

Mowat's Virunga, whose British and U.S. editions are called Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa, was the first book-length biography of Fossey, and it serves as an insightful counterweight to the many omissions in Fossey's own story, being derived from Fossey's actual letters and entries in her journals. Harold Hayes's book The Dark Romance of Dian Fossey was published in 1989 after extensive interviews with people who lived and worked with Fossey. Haye's book shows Fossey in a less positive or romanticized light than previous accounts had done. The film Gorillas in the Mist was based on Hayes' 1987 article in Life magazine, as cited in the film's credits, instead of Fossey's self-edited autobiography by that title.

No One Loved Gorillas More (2005) was written by Camilla de la Bedoyere and published by National Geographic in the United States and Palazzo Editions in the United Kingdom. Gorilla Dreams: The Legacy of Dian Fossey was written by the investigative journalist Georgianne Nienaber and published in 2006. This account of Fossey's story is told as if in her own words from beyond the grave. Fossey is also prominently featured in a book by Vanity Fair journalist Alex Shoumatoff called African Madness, in which the author expands on Fossey's controversial behaviors, implying that Fossey provoked her own murder by way of her private and public inflammatory interactions with people. The author also wrote a lengthy article titled "The Fatal Obsession of Dian Fossey".[55]

Films, television, and an opera
The Kentucky Opera Visions Program, in Louisville, has written an opera about Fossey, entitled Nyiramachabelli; it premiered on May 23, 2006.

Universal Studios bought the film rights to Gorillas in the Mist from Fossey in 1985, and Warner Bros. Studios bought the rights to the Hayes article, despite its having been severely criticized by Rosamond Carr. As a result of a legal battle between the two studios, a co-production was arranged. Portions of the story and the Hayes article were adapted for the film Gorillas in the Mist, starring Sigourney Weaver. The book covers Fossey's scientific career in great detail and omits material on her personal life, such as her affair with photographer Bob Campbell. In the film, the affair with Campbell (played by Bryan Brown) forms a major subplot. The Hayes article preceding the movie portrayed Fossey as a woman obsessed with gorillas, who would stop at nothing to protect them. The film includes scenes of Fossey's ruthless dealings with poachers, including a scene in which she sets fire to a poacher's home.

In the 2011 BBC documentary All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace, Adam Curtis uses Fossey as a symbol of the ideology of ecology, a balance of nature and western post-colonial political exploits in Africa.

"Wild Kingdom: Reunion With the Gorillas" (1984), features footage of Dr. Fossey interacting with the great apes in the Viruna Mountains after being away from them for about three years. The documentary-style video is narrated by Dian Fossey and Marlin Perkins. She shares some of her observations and personal experiences, concerning the gorillas in the band.[56]

Selected bibliography
  • Dian Fossey: Gorillas in the Mist, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1983
  • "Living with mountain gorillas", in The Marvels of Animal Behavior 208–229 (T.B. Allen ed., National Geographic Society), 1972
  • D. Fossey & A.H. Harcourt: "Feeding ecology of free-ranging mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)", in Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes 415–447 (Tim Clutton-Brock ed., Academic Press), 1977
  • "Development of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) through the first thirty-six months", in The Great Apes 139–186 (D.A. Hamburg & E.R. McCown eds., Benjamin-Cummings), 1979

Scholarly articles
  • "An amiable giant: Fuertes's gorilla", Living Bird Quarterly 1(summer): 21–22, 1982.
  • "Mountain gorilla research, 1974", Nat. Geogr. Soc. Res. Reps. 14: 243–258, 1982
  • "Mountain gorilla research, 1971–1972", Nat. Geogr. Soc. Res. Reps. 1971 Projects, 12: 237–255, 1980
  • "Mountain gorilla research, 1969–1970", Nat. Geogr. Soc. Res. Reps. 1969 Projects, 11: 173–176, 1978
  • The behaviour of the mountain gorilla, Ph.D. diss. Cambridge University, 1976
  • "Observations on the home range of one group of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)", Anim. Behav. 22: 568–581, 1974
  • "Vocalizations of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)", Anim. Behav. 20: 36-531972

1. Ware, Susan; Braukman, Stacy (2004). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 5. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. pp. 220-1. ISBN 0-674-01488-X.
2. Robertson, Nan (May 1981). "Three Who Have Chosen a Life in the Wild". B. The New York Times. p. 4.
3. Willis, Delta (July 15, 1990). "Some Primates Weren't Meant To Be Trusted". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-08. 
4. "Karisoke Revisited - A Study of Dian Fossey". innominatesociety.com. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
5. "Dian Fossey". Webster.edu. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
6. Mowat, Farley. Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa. New York, NY: Warner, 1987. Print.
7. Washam, Cynthia. "Fossey, Dian." Environmental Encyclopedia. 4th ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2011. 701-703. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
8. "Fossey, Dian." The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. Ed. Kenneth T. Jackson, Karen Markoe, and Arnold Markoe. Vol. 1: 1981-1985. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1998. 294-296. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
9. http://heritage.kappaalphatheta.org/page/notablethetas
10. "Dian Fossey – Biography". The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
11. Washam, Cynthia (2011). Environmental Encyclopedia (4 ed.). Detroit. pp. 701–703. 
12. Jackson, Kenneth (1998). The Scribener Encyclopedia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 294–296. 
13. Kenneth T. Jackson, Karen Markoe, and Arnold Markoe, ed. (1998). The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 294. 
14. Encyclopedia of World Biography (2 ed.). Detroit. 2004. pp. 23–24. 
15. McPherson, Angie. "Zoologist Dian Fossey: A storied life with gorillas". National Geographic. National Geographic. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
16. Mowat, Farley. Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa<ref?http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-30313306 Warner Books, 1987
17. Kenneth T. Jackson, Karen Markoe, and Arnold Markoe, ed. (1998). The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 294–296. 
18. Montgomery, p. 136
19. "About Dian Fossey - Info about the Life of Dian Fossey". Gorillafund.org. 2013-11-16. Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
20. "Dian Fossey text". National Geographic. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
21. Montgomery, p. 130
22. Montgomery, p. 138
23. Montgomery, pp. 131–2
24. Mowat, p. 223
25. Mowat, pp. 174–5
26. Mowat, pp. 74–8
27. Fossey, Dian : Gorillas in the Mist. 1983
28. Mowat, pp. 187–190
29. http://gorillafund.org/travel?utm_source=homepage&utm_medium=travel&utm_campaign=homepagetravel
30. "Dian Fossey text - P5". National Geographic. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
31. Goodavage, Maria (18 October 2012). "Gorilla Poaching: The Sad, Savage Reality". Take Part. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
32. "Dian Fossey text - P6". National Geographic. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
33. This organisation is unaffiliated with the Gorilla Organization in the UK, which uses Dian's name although it no longer funded her work after Digit's death.
34. Mowat, pp. 269
35. "Gorillas' Protector on the Hunt for Poachers". The Palm Beach Post. October 24, 1985. p. B8. A tall Californian, Fossey has emphysema. Nonetheless, she chain-smokes the local Impala brand of cigarettes.
36. "Naturalist Dian Fossey Slain at Camp in Rwanda—American Was Expert on Mountain Gorillas; Assailants Hunted". Los Angeles Times. December 29, 1985. 
37. Nienaber, Georgianne (April 14, 2006). "In Search of Dian Fossey's Ghost: a "Gorillas in the Mist" Pilgrimage". articlesengine.com. 
38. Brower, Montgomery (February 1986). "The Strange Death of Dian Fossey". People. 
39. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-30313306
40. "Dian Fossey". dian-fossey.com. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
41. Salak, Kira. "PLACES OF DARKNESS: AFRICA'S MOUNTAIN GORILLAS". National Geographic Adventure. 
42. Salak, Kira. "Photos from "PLACES OF DARKNESS: AFRICA'S MOUNTAIN GORILLAS"". National Geographic Adventure. 
43. Montgomery, pp. 162–3
44. AP News Report. (January 15, 1988). Ruling On Fossey's Will'
45. Eric Malnic (30 Aug 1986). "Suspect Denies Killing Famous Naturalist; Conspiracy Hinted". LA Times. Retrieved 16 Jan 2014. 
46. "Job Offer Rescinded". WOWT. 14 Mar 2005. Retrieved 16 Jan 2014. 
47. Washington Post, Gorillas in the mist film review Retrieved 16 January 2014.
48. Shlachter, Barry. "A Neighborhood Feud? The strange life and gruesome death of Dian Fossey", July 8, 1986, Boston Phoenix
49. Tunku VaradarajanTunku Varadarajan (2002-03-04). "Giants of the Jungle". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
50. Montgomery, p. 149
51. Mowat, pp. 200–1
52. "Dian Fossey's legacy". Biography. The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
53. Nienaber, Georgianne (2006). Gorilla Dreams: The Legacy of Dian Fossey. Lincoln: iUniverse. ISBN 059537669X.
54. "Google Doodle wishes Gorilla Expert Dian Fossey a Happy Birthday". Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
55. Shoumatoff, Alex (September 1986). "The Fatal Obsession of Dian Fossey". Vanity Fair.
56. Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom - The African Wild

  • Mowat, Farley (1987). Woman in the Mists. New York, NY: Warner Books. p. 380. ISBN 0-446-51360-1. 
  • Montgomery, Sy (1991). Walking with the Great Apes. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 280. ISBN 0395515971. 

External links
  • Dian Fossey at the Internet Movie Database
  • Dian Fossey at Find a Grave
  • Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International
  • International Primate Protection League
  • The Legacy of Dian Fossey
  • Fossey's first article for National Geographic, 1970
  • Dian Fossey eco money with quote
  • January 1970 article by Fossey in National Geographic - with pictures
  • Murder in the Mist solved? Animal Welfare Institute Quarterly
  • This article gives some information about the degradation of Dian's relationship with National Geographic Society prior to her death - http://www.huffingtonpost.com/georgianne-nienaber/fox-owned-inational-geogr_b_112699.html
Selected Sources from UK Libraries:
Montgomery, Sy. Walking with the Great Apes : Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Biruté Galdikas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991. Print.
QL26 .M66 1991, Young Library - 5th Floor 

Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. 1st Mariner Books ed. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Print.
QL737.P96 F67 2000, Young Library - 5th Floor 

Yount, Lisa. A to Z of Women in Science and Math. New York: Facts on File, 1999. Print. Facts on File Library of World History.
Q141 .Y675 1999, Young Library - Reference